Opportunities and challenges of the hottest mass c

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Opportunities and challenges of mass customization 1. The concept of mass customization

in 1970, the famous sociologist and futurist Alvin Toffler first put forward the basic idea of mass customization in his book future shock. Toffler believes that with the support of information technology, we can produce a wide range of even customized products, and its cost is close to that of mass-produced products

in 1987, Stan Davis, a famous economic trend expert and business management master, first defined the term mass customization in his book "future perfect", which means to provide customized products needed by customers with high efficiency and low cost. Davis believes that new technologies in the 21st century make mass customization possible

1989, The famous marketing master Philip Kotler wrote in his title "from mass marketing to mass customization" (the paper from mass marketing tomass customization points out that the mass market environment no longer exists, and the market must be composed. Today's Shaofen market has entered the era of mass customization, and the personalized customization of a single customer with computer technology and advanced manufacturing technology has become a reality.

in 1993, B. Joseph PineII, one of the founders of mass customization and a famous enterprise consultant, was one of the founders of mass customization.) In his book masscustomization: the new frontier business competition, he defined and systematically expounded the concept of mass customization. Pine pointed out that mass customization refers to the production mode of providing customized personalized products and services at the cost and speed of mass production. Pine believes that mass customization will become a more effective way of cattle production. The U.S. manufacturing industry must stop relying on mass production and adopt mass customization, a new production method that can better meet the needs of market customization

many other experts and scholars also elaborated the concept of mass customization from the aspects of development and design, manufacturing process, organization, production management and so on. Although each has its own characteristics in the form of expression, it has a high degree of consistency in the meaning. It can be summarized as follows: mass customization is a kind of integration of enterprise, customer, supplier and environment. Under the guidance of system thought, from the perspective of overall optimization, it makes full use of all kinds of resources existing in the enterprise, with the support of standardization technology, modern design methodology, information technology and advanced manufacturing technology, according to the personalized needs of customers, The production mode of providing customized products and services at low cost and high efficiency in mass production. Mass customization is a new production mode, which is both an opportunity and a challenge for manufacturing enterprises

II. Opportunities for mass customization

1 Opportunities to enhance customized business

some manufacturing enterprises have been carrying out customized production business. For the existing customized production business of enterprises, mass customization production mode can be adopted to realize the transformation from customized production to mass customization. By adopting the principle and method of mass customization, we can improve the mass efficiency of customized production, shorten the delivery time of customized products, and reduce the cost of customized products, so as to comprehensively improve the customized production business

industrial steam turbine is the general name of the driving steam turbine and the power generation steam turbine of self-contained power station in industrial enterprises. Its production belongs to typical customized production. At first, there was no competitor in the domestic market, and the customized market of industrial steam turbine still belonged to the seller's market. Therefore, enterprises mainly adopt the pricing strategy of "cost + profit" and refer to the prices of similar foreign products

with the increasingly fierce competition in the industrial steam turbine industry, customers will have high requirements for product price and delivery time while putting forward customized requirements for product functions. If enterprises want to win orders, they must shorten the delivery time: in order to increase profits, they must reduce costs

on the basis of the original customization business, an industrial steam turbine manufacturing enterprise uses the principle and method of mass customization to continuously improve product development and design, production management and other links, significantly improving the competitiveness of products

in terms of development, enterprises adopt modularization and standardization methods, including parts oriented modularization and standardization, as well as structural segment oriented modularization and standardization. Modularization and standardization for parts mainly refers to the standardization of parts accumulated by enterprises in the process of customized production. Modularization and standardization oriented to structural segment mainly refers to the logical structural segmentation and standardization of key components such as cylinder and rotor

in terms of design, adopt the modeling method and rapid design method of products and their parts, establish product models and parts models, realize the configuration design of customized products through product models, realize the variant design of parts through parts models, and then realize the rapid design of customized products

in terms of production management, we adopt the methods of order consolidation production, customization point backward and total cost management. In order to achieve batch efficiency, when making production plans, the orders of the same product series are consolidated for production, which can improve the production batch of parts. Through the reorganization of development and design process, the modular development of industrial steam turbine is relatively separated from the customized design process. The design process of customized products is carried out on the basis of the development results, so as to effectively postpone the customization point to the design stage. In order to further reduce costs, the customization point of some parts of the product will be moved to the manufacturing or even assembly stage in production practice

the total cost management aims to reduce the cost as a whole, rather than considering the problem only from a certain production link or a certain part, such as comprehensively determining the size of the production batch of general-purpose parts according to factors such as consumption prediction, inventory cost, the relationship between production batch and production cost, rather than simply pursuing the so-called "zero inventory"

2. Opportunities for batch business development

some manufacturing enterprises have been carrying out batch production business. For the existing mass production business of enterprises, mass customization production mode can be adopted to realize the transformation from mass production to mass customization production mode. By adopting the principle and method of mass customization, the customization ability of enterprises can be realized. On the basis of mass production, mass customization production can be carried out, so that the mass production business can be expanded

today's clothing market generally belongs to the buyer's market with an estimated annual output of 350000 vehicles. In the new market environment, the mass production mode promoted by traditional enterprises will directly lead to the disconnection between garment production and sales, resulting in the emptying of a large number of garment manufacturing capacity, the overstock of garment products, and the slow return of funds. Therefore, there is a big price war, and the benefits are seriously reduced, which restricts the further development of enterprises

modern clothing has gone far beyond its basic functions of covering the body and resisting the cold, and has become a symbol of cultural taste, the embodiment of personality and an important communication symbol. People pay attention to high-quality, practical and personalized clothing. The clothing market is gradually divided into a series of segments, and there is an obvious demand for customization in the clothing market

while continuing to have mass production business, a garment manufacturing enterprise has carried out the business of garment mass customization. By making full use of the existing design resources, manufacturing resources, logistics resources and other resources in mass production, the cost and risk of implementing garment mass customization are reduced to the greatest extent, making the garment mass customization business become one of the important sources of enterprise income

in the development and design of mass production and mass customization of clothing, a unified clothing template design system and layout system can be adopted, and the clothing development and design resource library can be shared. When mass production and mass customization produce similar clothing products, due to the similarity of their product structure, they have similar manufacturing processes, and a unified manufacturing system can be adopted. For example, the mass production and customized production of suits can adopt the same set of cutting equipment and the same sewing production line. The supply chain system, which is relatively mature in mass production, can be used to partially solve the distribution problem of mass customization clothing. Using the supply chain network from the manufacturing enterprise to the sales terminal, customers can go to the nearby sales terminal to measure, try on and pick up goods. When customers are not satisfied with customized clothes and need to repair, they can also send the repaired products and repair opinions back to the manufacturing enterprise headquarters through the sales terminal, and then send them to customers through the sales terminal after the headquarters completes the modification

3. Opportunities for the establishment of new businesses

some manufacturing enterprises are preparing to carry out new production businesses. For the new production business, instead of adopting the traditional enterprise driven production methods such as customized production and mass production, we can choose to adopt the mass customization production method driven by personalized market demand from the beginning, face mass customization to expand the market, develop products, manufacture products and provide services, and establish a new type of mass customization business in new fields

for different families, almost all have obvious customization needs for kitchen furniture and equipment. In order to meet the personalized needs of customers for the kitchen, in recent years, some enterprises have carried out mass customization business for the kitchen, making the overall kitchen gradually rise and become increasingly popular, which has become the main trend of kitchen choice for urban residents today. Customers can participate in the design of the overall kitchen, choose the style, color and configuration scheme, and realize "my kitchen is my own decision". Enterprise designers and customers work together to carry out "tailor-made" personalized design of the kitchen. Although the final customized combination still requires a certain degree of on-site processing and production, the production of its series of cabinets can adopt the method of mass production. This mass customization production mode of the overall kitchen not only meets the customization needs of customers, but also brings scale benefits to enterprises

III. The challenge of mass customization

1. The challenge of product customization

in order to achieve mass customization, enterprises must first provide customizable products. For this purpose, it is necessary to develop their products to make them have the customization elements that customers really need, including function, structure, performance, size, attributes, etc. Customers can customize functions, structures, performances, dimensions and attributes according to these customization elements

function customization refers to that customers can choose some functions of the product to realize the function configuration of the product; Structure customization refers to that customers can select some modules of products to realize structure configuration; Performance customization refers to the performance indicators of products and their parts that customers can choose; Size customization means that customers can determine the size of products and their parts according to their needs; Attribute customization means that customers can choose the color and other attributes of products and their parts. The customization of industrial steam turbine is mainly the customization of structure and performance; The customization of clothing is mainly the customization of size and attributes; The customization of the whole kitchen is mainly the customization of structure, size and attributes; The customization of computer is mainly the customization of function, structure and performance; Decoration of

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